DECLARATION ON CHRISTIAN EDUCATION
POPE PAUL VI
ON OCTOBER 28, 1965
The Sacred Ecumenical Council has
considered with care how extremely important education is in the life of man and
how its influence ever grows in the social progress of this age.(1)
Indeed, the circumstances of our time
have made it easier and at once more urgent to educate young people and, what is
more, to continue the education of adults. Men are more aware of their own
dignity and position; more and more they want to take an active part in social
and especially in economic and political life.(2) Enjoying more leisure, as they
sometimes do, men find that the remarkable development of technology and
scientific investigation and the new means of communication offer them an
opportunity of attaining more easily their cultural and spiritual inheritance
and of fulfilling one another in the closer ties between groups and even between
Consequently, attempts are being made
everywhere to promote more education. The rights of men to an education,
particularly the primary rights of children and parents, are being proclaimed
and recognized in public documents.(3) As the number of pupils rapidly increases,
schools are multiplied and expanded far and wide and other educational
institutions are established. New experiments are conducted in methods of
education and teaching. Mighty attempts are being made to obtain education for
all, even though vast numbers of children and young people are still deprived of
even rudimentary training and so many others lack a suitable education in which
truth and love are developed together.
To fulfill the mandate she has received
from her divine founder of proclaiming the mystery of salvation to all men and
of restoring all things in Christ, Holy Mother the Church must be concerned with
the whole of man's life, even the secular part of it insofar as it has a bearing
on his heavenly calling.(4) Therefore she has a role in the progress and
development of education. Hence this sacred synod declares certain fundamental
principles of Christian education especially in schools. These principles will
have to be developed at greater length by a special post-conciliar commission
and applied by episcopal conferences to varying local situations.
1. The Meaning of the Universal
Right to an Education
All men of every race, condition and
age, since they enjoy the dignity of a human being, have an inalienable right to
an education (5) that is in keeping with their ultimate goal,(6) their ability,
their sex, and the culture and tradition of their country, and also in harmony
with their fraternal association with other peoples in the fostering of true
unity and peace on earth. For a true education aims at the formation of the
human person in the pursuit of his ultimate end and of the good of the societies
of which, as man, he is a member, and in whose obligations, as an adult, he will
Therefore children and young people
must be helped, with the aid of the latest advances in psychology and the arts
and science of teaching, to develop harmoniously their physical, moral and
intellectual endowments so that they may gradually acquire a mature sense of
responsibility in striving endlessly to form their own lives properly and in
pursuing true freedom as they surmount the vicissitudes of life with courage and
constancy. Let them be given also, as they advance in years, a positive and
prudent sexual education. Moreover they should be so trained to take their part
in social life that properly instructed in the necessary and opportune skills
they can become actively involved in various community organizations, open to
discourse with others and willing to do their best to promote the common good.
This sacred synod likewise declares
that children and young people have a right to be motivated to appraise moral
values with a right conscience, to embrace them with a personal adherence,
together with a deeper knowledge and love of God. Consequently it earnestly
entreats all those who hold a position of public authority or who are in charge
of education to see to it that youth is never deprived of this sacred right. It
further exhorts the sons of the Church to give their attention with generosity
to the entire field of education, having especially in mind the need of
extending very soon the benefits of a suitable education and training to
everyone in all parts of the world.(7)
2. Christian Education
Since all Christians have become by
rebirth of water and the Holy Spirit a new creature(8) so that they should be
called and should be children of God, they have a right to a Christian
education. A Christian education does not merely strive for the maturing of a
human person as just now described, but has as its principal purpose this goal:
that the baptized, while they are gradually introduced the knowledge of the
mystery of salvation, become ever more aware of the gift of Faith they have
received, and that they learn in addition how to worship God the Father in
spirit and truth (cf. John 4:23) especially in liturgical action, and be
conformed in their personal lives according to the new man created in justice
and holiness of truth (Eph. 4:22-24); also that they develop into perfect
manhood, to the mature measure of the fullness of Christ (cf. Eph. 4:13) and
strive for the growth of the Mystical Body; moreover, that aware of their
calling, they learn not only how to bear witness to the hope that is in them
(cf. Peter 3:15) but also how to help in the Christian formation of the world
that takes place when natural powers viewed in the full consideration of man
redeemed by Christ contribute to the good of the whole society.(9) Wherefore
this sacred synod recalls to pastors of souls their most serious obligation to
see to it that all the faithful, but especially the youth who are the hope of
the Church, enjoy this Christian education.(10)
3. The Authors of Education
Since parents have given children their
life, they are bound by the most serious obligation to educate their offspring
and therefore must be recognized as the primary and principal educators.(11)
This role in education is so important that only with difficulty can it be
supplied where it is lacking. Parents are the ones who must create a family
atmosphere animated by love and respect for God and man, in which the
well-rounded personal and social education of children is fostered. Hence the
family is the first school of the social virtues that every society needs. It is
particularly in the Christian family, enriched by the grace and office of the
sacrament of matrimony, that children should be taught from their early years to
have a knowledge of God according to the faith received in Baptism, to worship
Him, and to love their neighbor. Here, too, they find their first experience of
a wholesome human society and of the Church. Finally, it is through the family
that they are gradually led to a companionship with their fellowmen and with the
people of God. Let parents, then, recognize the inestimable importance a truly
Christian family has for the life and progress of God's own people.(12)
The family which has the primary duty
of imparting education needs help of the whole community. In addition,
therefore, to the rights of parents and others to whom the parents entrust a
share in the work of education, certain rights and duties belong indeed to civil
society, whose role is to direct what is required for the common temporal good.
Its function is to promote the education of youth in many ways, namely: to
protect the duties and rights of parents and others who share in education and
to give them aid; according to the principle of subsidiarity, when the endeavors
of parents and other societies are lacking, to carry out the work of education
in accordance with the wishes of the parents; and, moreover, as the common good
demands, to build schools and institutions.(13)
Finally, in a special way, the duty of
educating belongs to the Church, not merely because she must be recognized as a
human society capable of educating, but especially because she has the
responsibility of announcing the way of salvation to all men, of communicating
the life of Christ to those who believe, and, in her unfailing solicitude, of
assisting men to be able to come to the fullness of this life.(14) The Church is
bound as a mother to give to these children of hers an education by which their
whole life can be imbued with the spirit of Christ and at the same time do all
she can to promote for all peoples the complete perfection of the human person,
the good of earthly society and the building of a world that is more human.(15)
4. Various Aids to Christian
In fulfilling its educational role, the
Church, eager to employ all suitable aids, is concerned especially about those
which are her very own. Foremost among these is catechetical instruction,(16)
which enlightens and strengthens the faith, nourishes life according to the
spirit of Christ, leads to intelligent and active participation in the
liturgical mystery(17) and gives motivation for apostolic activity. The Church
esteems highly and seeks to penetrate and ennoble with her own spirit also other
aids which belong to the general heritage of man and which are of great
influence in forming souls and molding men, such as the media of
communication,(18) various groups for mental and physical development, youth
associations, and, in particular, schools.
5. The Importance of Schools
Among all educational instruments the
school has a special importance.(19) It is designed not only to develop with
special care the intellectual faculties but also to form the ability to judge
rightly, to hand on the cultural legacy of previous generations, to foster a
sense of values, to prepare for professional life. Between pupils of different
talents and backgrounds it promotes friendly relations and fosters a spirit of
mutual understanding; and it establishes as it were a center whose work and
progress must be shared together by families, teachers, associations of various
types that foster cultural, civic, and religious life, as well as by civil
society and the entire human community.
Beautiful indeed and of great
importance is the vocation of all those who aid parents in fulfilling their
duties and who, as representatives of the human community, undertake the task of
education in schools. This vocation demands special qualities of mind and heart,
very careful preparation, and continuing readiness to renew and to adapt.
6. The Duties and Rights of
Parents who have the primary and
inalienable right and duty to educate their children must enjoy true liberty in
their choice of schools. Consequently, the public power, which has the
obligation to protect and defend the rights of citizens, must see to it, in its
concern for distributive justice, that public subsidies are paid out in such a
way that parents are truly free to choose according to their conscience the
schools they want for their children.(20)
In addition it is the task of the state
to see to it that all citizens are able to come to a suitable share in culture
and are properly prepared to exercise their civic duties and rights. Therefore
the state must protect the right of children to an adequate school education,
check on the ability of teachers and the excellence of their training, look
after the health of the pupils and in general, promote the whole school project.
But it must always keep in mind the principle of subsidiarity so that there is
no kind of school monopoly, for this is opposed to the native rights of the
human person, to the development and spread of culture, to the peaceful
association of citizens and to the pluralism that exists today in ever so many
Therefore this sacred synod exhorts the
faithful to assist to their utmost in finding suitable methods of education and
programs of study and in forming teachers who can give youth a true education.
Through the associations of parents in particular they should further with their
assistance all the work of the school but especially the moral education it must
7. Moral and Religious Education
in all Schools
Feeling very keenly the weighty
responsibility of diligently caring for the moral and religious education of all
her children, the Church must be present with her own special affection and help
for the great number who are being trained in schools that are not Catholic.
This is possible by the witness of the lives of those who teach and direct them,
by the apostolic action of their fellow-students,(23) but especially by the
ministry of priests and laymen who give them the doctrine of salvation in a way
suited to their age and circumstances and provide spiritual aid in every way the
times and conditions allow.
The Church reminds parents of the duty
that is theirs to arrange and even demand that their children be able to enjoy
these aids and advance in their Christian formation to a degree that is abreast
of their development in secular subjects. Therefore the Church esteems highly
those civil authorities and societies which, bearing in mind the pluralism of
contemporary society and respecting religious freedom, assist families so that
the education of their children can be imparted in all schools according to the
individual moral and religious principles of the families.(24)
8. Catholic Schools
The influence of the Church in the
field of education is shown in a special manner by the Catholic school. No less
than other schools does the Catholic school pursue cultural goals and the human
formation of youth. But its proper function is to create for the school
community a special atmosphere animated by the Gospel spirit of freedom and
charity, to help youth grow according to the new creatures they were made
through baptism as they develop their own personalities, and finally to order
the whole of human culture to the news of salvation so that the knowledge the
students gradually acquire of the world, life and man is illumined by faith.(25)
So indeed the Catholic school, while it is open, as it must be, to the situation
of the contemporary world, leads its students to promote efficaciously the good
of the earthly city and also prepares them for service in the spread of the
Kingdom of God, so that by leading an exemplary apostolic life they become, as
it were, a saving leaven in the human community.
Since, therefore, the Catholic school
can be such an aid to the fulfillment of the mission of the People of God and to
the fostering of the dialogue between the Church and mankind, to the benefit of
both, it retains even in our present circumstances the utmost importance.
Consequently this sacred synod proclaims anew what has already been taught in
several documents of the magisterium,(26) namely: the right of the Church freely
to establish and to conduct schools of every type and level. And the council
calls to mind that the exercise of a right of this kind contributes in the
highest degree to the protection of freedom of conscience, the rights of
parents, as well as to the betterment of culture itself.
But let teachers recognize that the
Catholic school depends upon them almost entirely for the accomplishment of its
goals and programs.(27) They should therefore be very carefully prepared so that
both in secular and religious knowledge they are equipped with suitable
qualifications and also with a pedagogical skill that is in keeping with the
findings of the contemporary world. Intimately linked in charity to one another
and to their students and endowed with an apostolic spirit, may teachers by
their life as much as by their instruction bear witness to Christ, the unique
Teacher. Let them work as partners with parents and together with them in every
phase of education give due consideration to the difference of sex and the
proper ends Divine Providence assigns to each sex in the family and in society.
Let them do all they can to stimulate their students to act for themselves and
even after graduation to continue to assist them with advice, friendship and by
establishing special associations imbued with the true spirit of the Church. The
work of these teachers, this sacred synod declares, is in the real sense of the
word an apostolate most suited to and necessary for our times and at once a true
service offered to society. The Council also reminds Catholic parents of the
duty of entrusting their children to Catholic schools wherever and whenever it
is possible and of supporting these schools to the best of their ability and of
cooperating with them for the education of their children.(28)
9. Different Types of Catholic
To this concept of a Catholic school
all schools that are in any way dependent on the Church must conform as far as
possible, though the Catholic school is to take on different forms in keeping
with local circumstances.(29) Thus the Church considers very dear to her heart
those Catholic schools, found especially in the areas of the new churches, which
are attended also by students who are not Catholics.
Attention should be paid to the needs
of today in establishing and directing Catholic schools. Therefore, though
primary and secondary schools, the foundation of education, must still be
fostered, great importance is to be attached to those which are required in a
particular way by contemporary conditions, such as: professional(30) and
technical schools, centers for educating adults and promoting social welfare, or
for the retarded in need of special care, and also schools for preparing
teachers for religious instruction and other types of education.
This Sacred Council of the Church
earnestly entreats pastors and all the faithful to spare no sacrifice in helping
Catholic schools fulfill their function in a continually more perfect way, and
especially in caring for the needs of those who are poor in the goods of this
world or who are deprived of the assistance and affection of a family or who are
strangers to the gift of Faith.
10. Catholic Colleges and
The Church is concerned also with
schools of a higher level, especially colleges and universities. In those
schools dependent on her she intends that by their very constitution individual
subjects be pursued according to their own principles, method, and liberty of
scientific inquiry, in such a way that an ever deeper understanding in these
fields may be obtained and that, as questions that are new and current are
raised and investigations carefully made according to the example of the doctors
of the Church and especially of St. Thomas Aquinas,(31) there may be a deeper
realization of the harmony of faith and science. Thus there is accomplished a
public, enduring and pervasive influence of the Christian mind in the
furtherance of culture and the students of these institutions are molded into
men truly outstanding in their training, ready to undertake weighty
responsibilities in society and witness to the faith in the world.(32)
In Catholic universities where there is
no faculty of sacred theology there should be established an institute or chair
of sacred theology in which there should be lectures suited to lay students.
Since science advances by means of the investigations peculiar to higher
scientific studies, special attention should be given in Catholic universities
and colleges to institutes that serve primarily the development of scientific
The sacred synod heartily recommends
that Catholic colleges and universities be conveniently located in different
parts of the world, but in such a way that they are outstanding not for their
numbers but for their pursuit of knowledge. Matriculation should be readily
available to students of real promise, even though they be of slender means,
especially to students from the newly emerging nations.
Since the destiny of society and of the
Church itself is intimately linked with the progress of young people pursuing
higher studies,(33) the pastors of the Church are to expend their energies not
only on the spiritual life of students who attend Catholic universities, but,
solicitous for the spiritual formation of all their children, they must see to
it, after consultations between bishops, that even at universities that are not
Catholic there should be associations and university centers under Catholic
auspices in which priests, religious and laity, carefully selected and prepared,
should give abiding spiritual and intellectual assistance to the youth of the
university. Whether in Catholic universities or others, young people of greater
ability who seem suited for teaching or research should be specially helped and
encouraged to undertake a teaching career.
11. Faculties of Sacred Sciences
The Church expects much from the
zealous endeavors of the faculties of the sacred sciences.(34) For to them she
entrusts the very serious responsibility of preparing her own students not only
for the priestly ministry, but especially for teaching in the seats of higher
ecclesiastical studies or for promoting learning on their own or for undertaking
the work of a more rigorous intellectual apostolate. Likewise it is the role of
these very faculties to make more penetrating inquiry into the various aspects
of the sacred sciences so that an ever deepening understanding of sacred
Revelation is obtained, the legacy of Christian wisdom handed down by our
forefathers is more fully developed, the dialogue with our separated brethren
and with non-Christians is fostered, and answers are given to questions arising
from the development of doctrine.(35)
Therefore ecclesiastical faculties
should reappraise their own laws so that they can better promote the sacred
sciences and those linked with them and, by employing up-to-date methods and
aids, lead their students to more penetrating inquiry.
12. Coordination to be Fostered
in Scholastic Matters
Cooperation is the order of the day. It
increases more and more to supply the demand on a diocesan, national and
international level. Since it is altogether necessary in scholastic matters,
every means should be employed to foster suitable cooperation between Catholic
schools, and between these and other schools that collaboration should be
developed which the good of all mankind requires.(36) From greater coordination
and cooperative endeavor greater fruits will be derived particularly in the area
of academic institutions. Therefore in every university let the various
faculties work mutually to this end, insofar as their goal will permit. In
addition, let the universities also endeavor to work together by promoting
international gatherings, by sharing scientific inquiries with one another, by
communicating their discoveries to one another, by having exchange of professors
for a time and by promoting all else that is conducive to greater assistance.
The sacred synod earnestly entreats
young people themselves to become aware of the importance of the work of
education and to prepare themselves to take it up, especially where because of a
shortage of teachers the education of youth is in jeopardy. This same sacred
synod, while professing its gratitude to priests, Religious men and women, and
the laity who by their evangelical self-dedication are devoted to the noble work
of education and of schools of every type and level, exhorts them to persevere
generously in the work they have undertaken and, imbuing their students with the
spirit of Christ, to strive to excel in pedagogy and the pursuit of knowledge in
such a way that they not merely advance the internal renewal of the Church but
preserve and enhance its beneficent influence upon today's world, especially the
1. Among many documents illustrating
the importance of education confer above all apostolic letter of Benedict XV,
Communes Litteras, April 10, 1919: A.A.S. 11 (1919) p. 172. Pius XI's apostolic
encyclical, Divini Illius Magistri, Dec. 31, 1929: A.A.S. 22 (1930) pp. 49-86.
Pius XII's allocution to the youths of Italian Catholic Action, April 20, 1946:
Discourses and Radio Messages, vol. 8, pp. 53-57. Allocution to fathers of
French families, Sept. 18, 1951: Discourses and Radio Messages, vol. 13, pp.
241-245. John XXIII's 30th anniversary message on the publication of the
encyclical letter, Divini Illius Magistri, Dec. 30, 1959: A.A.S. 52 (1960) pp.
57-S9. Paul VI's allocution to members of Federated Institutes Dependent on
Ecclesiastic Authority, Dec. 30, 1963: Encyclicals and Discourses of His
Holiness Paul VI, Rome, 1964, pp. 601-603. Above all are to be consulted the
Acts and Documents of the Second Vatican Council appearing in the first series
of the ante-preparatrory phase. vol. 3. pp. 363-364; 370-371; 373-374.
2. Cf. John XXIII's encyclical letter
Mater et Magistra, May 15, 1961: A.A.S. 53 (1961) pp. 413-415; 417-424;
Encyclical letter, Pacem in Terris, April 11, 1963: A.A.S. 55 (1963) p. 278 ff.
3. Declaration on the Rights of Man of
Dec. 10, 1948, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations, and also
cf. the Declaration of the Rights of Children of Nov. 20 1959; additional
protocol to the Convention Safeguarding the Rights of Men and Fundamental
Liberties, Paris, March 20, 1952; regarding that universal profession of the
character of human laws cf. apostolic letter Pacem in Terris, of John XXIII of
April 11, 1963: A.A.S. 55 (1963) p. 295 ff.
4. Cf. John XXIII's encyclical letter,
Mater et Magistra, May 15, 1961: A.A.S. 53 (1961) p. 402. Cf. Second Vatican
Council's Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, no. 17: A.A.S. 57 (1965) p. 21,
and schema on the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, 1965.
5. Pius XII's radio message of Dec. 24,
1942: A.A.S. 35 (1943) pp. 12-19, and John XXIII's encyclical letter, Pacem in
Terris April 11, 1963: A.A.S. 55 (1963) p. 259 ff. Also cf. declaration cited on
the rights of man in footnote 3.
6. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter,
Divini Illius Magistri, Dec. 31, 1929: A.A.S. 22 (1930) p. 50 ff.
7. Cf. John XXIII's encyclical letter,
Mater et Magistra, May 15 1961: A.A.S. 53 (1961) p. 441 ff.
8. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter,
Divini Illius Magistri, 1, p. 83.
9. Cf. Second Vatican Council's
Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, no. 36: A.A.S. 57 (1965) p. 41 ff.
10. Cf. Second Vatican Council's schema
on the Decree on the Lay Apostolate (1965), no. 12.
11. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter
Divini Illius Magistri, 1, p. 59 ff., encyclical letter Mit Brennender Sorge,
March 14, 1937: A.A.S. 29; Pius XII's allocution to the first national congress
of the Italian Catholic Teachers' Association, Sept. 8, 1946: Discourses and
Radio Messages, vol. 8, p. 218.
12. Cf. Second Vatican Council's
Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, nos. 11 and 35: A.A.S. 57 (1965) pp. 16, 40
13. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter
Divini Illius Magistri, 1, p. 63 ff. Pius XII's radio message of June 1, 1941:
A.A.S. 33 (1941) p. 200; allocution to the first national congress of the
Association of Italian Catholic Teachers, Sept 8, 1946: Discourses and Radio
Messages, vol. 8, 1946: Discourses and Radio Messages, vol. 8 p. 218. Regarding
the principle of subsidiarity, cf. John XXIII's encyclical letter, Pacem in
Terris, April 11, 1963: A.A.S. 55 (1963) p. 294.
14. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter,
Divini Illius Magistri, 1 pp. 53 ff. and 56 ff.; Encyclical letter, Non Abbiamo
Bisogno June 29, 1931: A.A.S. 23 (1931) p. 311 ff. Pius XII's letter from
Secretariat of State to 28th Italian Social Week, Sept. 20, 1955; L'Osservatore
Romano, Sept. 29, 1955.
15. The Church praises those local,
national and international civic authorities who, conscious of the urgent
necessity in these times, expend all their energy so that all peoples may
benefit from more education and human culture. Cf. Paul VI's allocution to the
United Nations General Assembly, Oct. 4, 1965: L'Osservatore Romano, Oct. 6,
16. Cf. Pius XI's motu proprio. Orbem
Catholicum, June 29 1923: A.A.S. 15 (1923) pp. 327-329; decree, Provide Sane,
Jan. 12, 1935: A.A.S. 27 (1935) pp. 145-152. Second Vatican Council's Decree on
Bishops and Pastoral Duties, nos. 13 and 14.
17. Cf. Second Vatican Council's
Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, no. 14: A.A.S. 56 (1964) p. 104.
18. Cf. Second Vatican Council's Decree
on Communications Media, nos. 13 and 14: A.A.S. 56 (1964) p. 149 ff.
19. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter,
Divini Illius Magistri, 1, p. 76; Pius XII's allocution to Bavarian Association
of Catholic Teachers, Dec. 31, 1956: Discourses and Radio Messages, vol. 18, p.
20. Cf. Provincial Council of
Cincinnati III, a. 1861: Collatio Lacensis, III, col. 1240, c/d; Pius XI's
encyclical letter, Divini Illius Magistri, 1, pp. 60, 63 ff.
21. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter,
Divini Illius Magistri, 1, p. 63; encyclical letter, Non Abbiamo Misogno, June
29, 1931: A.A.S. 23 (1931) p. 305, Pius XII's letter from the Secretary of State
to the 28th Italian Social Week, Sept. 20, 1955: L'Osservatore Romano, Sept. 29,
1955. Paul VI's allocution to the Association of Italian Christian Workers, Oct.
6, 1963: Encyclicals and Discourses of Paul VI, vol. 1, Rome, 1964, p. 230.
22. Cf. John XXIII's message on the
30th anniversary of the encyclical letter, Divini Illius Magistri, Dec. 30,
1959: A.A.S. 52 (1960) p. 57.
23. The Church considers it as
apostolic action of great worth also when Catholic teachers and associates work
in these schools. Cf. Second Vatican Council's schema of the Decree on the Lay
Apostolate (1965), nos. 12 and 16.
24. Cf. Second Vatican Council's schema
on the Declaration on Religious Liberty (1965), no. 5.
25. Cf. Provincial Council of
Westminster I, a. 1852: Collatio Lacensis III, col. 1334, a/b; Pius XI's
encyclical letter, Divini Illius Magistri, 1, p. 77 ff.; Pius XII's allocution
to the Bavarian Association of Catholic Teachers, Dec. 31, 1956: Discourses and
Radio Messages, vol. 18, p. 746; Paul VI's allocution to the members of
Federated Institutes Dependent on Ecclesiastic Authority, Dec. 30, 1963:
Encyclicals and Discourses of Paul VI, 1, Rome, 1964, 602 ff.
26. Cf. especially the document
mentioned in the first note; moreover this law of the Church is proclaimed by
many provincial councils and in the most recent declarations of very many of the
27. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter,
Divini Illius Magistri, 1 p. 80 ff.; Pius XII's allocution to the Catholic
Association of Italian Teachers in Secondary Schools, Jan. 5, 1954: Discourses
and Radio Messages, 15, pp. 551-55B; John XXIII's allocution to the 6th Congress
of the Associations of Catholic Italian Teachers Sept. 5, 1959: Discourses,
Messages, Conversations, 1, Rome,1960, pp. 427-431.
28. Cf. Pius XII's allocution to the
Catholic Association of Italian Teachers in Secondary Schools, Jan. 5, 1954, 1,
29. Cf. Paul VI's allocution to the
International Office of Catholic Education, Feb. 25, 1964: Encyclicals and
Discourses of Paul VI, 2, Rome, 1964, p. 232.
30. Cf. Paul VI's allocution to the
Christian Association of Italian Workers, Oct. 6, 1963: Encyclicals and
Discourses of Paul VI, 1, Rome, 1964, p. 229.
31. Cf. Paul VI's allocution to the
International Thomistic Congress, Sept. 10, 1965: L'Osservatore Romano, Sept.
32. Cf. Pius XII's allocution to
teachers and students of French Institutes of Higher Catholic Education, Sept.
21, 1950: Discourses and Radio Messages, 12, pp. 219-221; letters to the 22nd
congress of Pax Romana, Aug. 12, 1952: Discourses and Radio Messages, 14, pp.
567-569; John XXIII's allocution to the Federation of Catholic Universities,
April 1, 1959: Discourses, Messages and Conversations, 1, Rome, 1960, pp.
226-229; Paul VI's allocution to the Academic Senate of the Catholic University
of Milan, April 5, 1964: Encyclicals and Discourses of Paul VI, 2, Rome, 1964,
33. Cf. Pius XII's allocution to the
academic senate and students of the University of Rome, June 15, 1952:
Discourses and Radio Messages, 14, p. 208: "The direction of today's society
principally is placed in the mentality and hearts of the universities of today."
34. Cf. Pius XII's apostolic
constitution, Deus Scientiarum Dominus, May 24, 1931: A.A.S. 23 (1931) pp.
35. Cf. Pius XII's encyclical letter,
Humani Generis Aug. 12, 1950 A.A.S. 42 (1950) pp. 568 ff. and 578; Paul VI's
encyclical letter, Ecclesiam Suam, part III Aug. 6, 1964; A.A.S. 56 (1964) pp.
637-659; Second Vatican Council's Decree on Eccumenism: A.A.S. 57 (1965) pp.
36. Cf. John XXIII's encyclical letter,
Pacem in Terris, April 11, 1963: A.A.S. 55 (1963) p. 284 and elsewhere.